Seminars and Colloquia by Series

Monday, October 19, 2009 - 13:00 , Location: Skiles 255 , Helga S. Huntley , University of Delaware , Organizer:
Biologists tracking crab larvae, engineers designing pollution mitigation strategies, and climate scientists studying tracer transport in the oceans are among many who rely on trajectory predictions from ocean models. State-of-the-art models have been shown to produce reliable velocity forecasts for 48-72 hours, yet the predictability horizon for trajectories and related Lagrangian quantities remains significantly shorter. We investigate the potential for decreasing Lagrangian prediction errors by applying a constrained normal mode analysis (NMA) to blend drifter observations with model velocity fields. The properties of an unconstrained NMA and the effects of parameter choices are discussed. The constrained NMA technique is initially presented in a perfect model simulation, where the “true” velocity field is known and the resulting error can be directly assessed. Finally, we will show results from a recent experiment in the East Asia Sea, where real observations were assimilated into operational ocean model hindcasts.
Wednesday, October 14, 2009 - 13:00 , Location: Skiles 269 , Edson Denis Leonel , Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rio Claro, Brazil , Organizer:
Fermi acceleration is a phenomenon where a classical particle canacquires unlimited energy upon collisions with a heavy moving wall. Inthis talk, I will make a short review for the one-dimensional Fermiaccelerator models and discuss some scaling properties for them. Inparticular, when inelastic collisions of the particle with the boundaryare taken into account, suppression of Fermi acceleration is observed.I will give an example of a two dimensional time-dependent billiardwhere such a suppression also happens.
Monday, October 12, 2009 - 13:00 , Location: Skiles 255 , Wei Zhu , University of Alabama (Department of Mathematics) , , Organizer: Sung Ha Kang
The Rudin-Osher-Fatemi (ROF) model is one of the most powerful and popular models in image denoising. Despite its simple form, the ROF functional has proved to be nontrivial to minimize by conventional methods. The difficulty is mainly due to the nonlinearity and poor conditioning of the related problem. In this talk, I will focus on the minimization of the ROF functional in the one-dimensional case. I will present a new algorithm that arrives at the minimizer of the ROF functional fast and exactly. The proposed algorithm will be compared with the standard and popular gradient projection method in accuracy, efficiency and other aspects.
Monday, September 28, 2009 - 13:00 , Location: Skiles 255 , Chad Topaz , Macalester College , Organizer:
Biological aggregations such as insect swarms, bird flocks, and fish schools are arguably some of the most common and least understood patterns in nature. In this talk, I will discuss recent work on swarming models, focusing on the connection between inter-organism social interactions and properties of macroscopic swarm patterns. The first model is a conservation-type partial integrodifferential equation (PIDE). Social interactions of incompressible form lead to vortex-like swarms. The second model is a high-dimensional ODE description of locust groups. The statistical-mechanical properties of the attractive-repulsive social interaction potential control whether or not individuals form a rolling migratory swarm pattern similar to those observed in nature. For the third model, we again return to a conservation-type PIDE and, via long- and short-wave analysis, determine general conditions that social interactions must satisfy for the population to asymptotically spread, contract, or reach steady state.
Monday, September 21, 2009 - 13:00 , Location: Skiles 255 , Yuliya Babenko , Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Sam Houston State University , Organizer: Doron Lubinsky
In this talk we first present the exact asymptotics of the optimal error in the weighted L_p-norm, 1\leq p \leq \infty, of linear spline interpolation of an arbitrary bivariate function f \in C^2([0,1]^2). We further discuss the applications to numerical integration and adaptive mesh generation for finite element methods, and explore connections with the problem of approximating the convex bodies by polytopes. In addition, we provide the generalization to asymmetric norms. We give a brief review of known results and introduce a series of new ones. The proofs of these results lead to algorithms for the construction of asymptotically optimal sequences of triangulations for linear interpolation. Moreover, we derive similar results for other classes of splines and interpolation schemes, in particular for splines over rectangular partitions. Last but not least, we also discuss several multivariate generalizations.
Wednesday, September 9, 2009 - 13:00 , Location: Skiles 114 , Amy Novick-Cohen , Technion , Organizer: John McCuan
Grain boundaries within polycrystalline materials are known to be governed by motion by mean curvature. However, when the polycrystalline specimen is thin, such as in thin films, then the effects of the exterior surfaces start to play an important role. We consider two particularly simple geometries, an axi-symmetric geometry, and a half loop geometry which is often employed in making measurements of the kinetic coefficient in the motion by mean curvature equation, obtaining corrective terms which arise due to the coupling of grain boundaries to the exterior surface.   Joint work with Anna Rotman, Arkady Vilenkin & Olga Zelekman-Smirin
Monday, August 31, 2009 - 13:00 , Location: Skiles 255 , Nicola Guglielmi , Università di L'Aquila , , Organizer: Sung Ha Kang
In this talk I will address the problem of the computation of the jointspectral radius (j.s.r.) of a set of matrices.This tool is useful to determine uniform stability properties of non-autonomous discrete linear systems. After explaining how to extend the spectral radius from a single matrixto a set of matrices and illustrate some applications where such conceptplays an important role I will consider the problem of the computation ofthe j.s.r. and illustrate some possible strategies.  A basic tool I willuse to this purpose consists of polytope norms, both real and complex.I will illustrate a possible algorithm for the computation of the j.s.r. ofa family of matrices which is based on the use of these classes of norms.Some examples will be shown to illustrate the behaviour of the algorithm.Finally I will address the problem of the finite computability of the j.s.r.and state some recent results, open problems and conjectures connected withthis issue.
Tuesday, August 18, 2009 - 14:00 , Location: Skiles 255 , Justin W. L. Wan , Computer Science, University of Waterloo , Organizer: Sung Ha Kang
In image guided procedures such as radiation therapies and computer-assisted surgeries, physicians often need to align images that are taken at different times and by different modalities. Typically, a rigid registration is performed first, followed by a nonrigid registration. We are interested in efficient registrations methods which are robust (numerical solution procedure will not get stuck at local minima) and fast (ideally real time). We will present a robust continuous mutual information model for multimodality regisration and explore the new emerging parallel hardware for fast computation. Nonrigid registration is then applied afterwards to further enhance the results. Elastic and fluid models were usually used but edges and small details often appear smeared in the transformed templates. We will propose a new inviscid model formulated in a particle framework, and derive the corresponding nonlinear partial differential equations for computing the spatial transformation. The idea is to simulate the template image as a set of free particles moving toward the target positions under applied forces. Our model can accommodate both small and large deformations, with sharper edges and clear texture achieved at less computational cost. We demonstrate the performance of our model on a variety of images including 2D and 3D, mono-modal and multi-modal, synthetic and clinical data.
Thursday, April 23, 2009 - 13:00 , Location: Skiles 255 , Per-Gunnar Martinsson , Dept of Applied Mathematics, University of Colorado , Organizer: Haomin Zhou

Note special day

Linear boundary value problems occur ubiquitously in many areas of science and engineering, and the cost of computing approximate solutions to such equations is often what determines which problems can, and which cannot, be modelled computationally. Due to advances in the last few decades (multigrid, FFT, fast multipole methods, etc), we today have at our disposal numerical methods for most linear boundary value problems that are "fast" in the sense that their computational cost grows almost linearly with problem size. Most existing "fast" schemes are based on iterative techniques in which a sequence of incrementally more accurate solutions is constructed. In contrast, we propose the use of recently developed methods that are capable of directly inverting large systems of linear equations in almost linear time. Such "fast direct methods" have several advantages over existing iterative methods: (1) Dramatic speed-ups in applications involving the repeated solution of similar problems (e.g. optimal design, molecular dynamics). (2) The ability to solve inherently ill-conditioned problems (such as scattering problems) without the use of custom designed preconditioners. (3) The ability to construct spectral decompositions of differential and integral operators. (4) Improved robustness and stability. In the talk, we will also describe how randomized sampling can be used to rapidly and accurately construct low rank approximations to matrices. The cost of constructing a rank k approximation to an m x n matrix A for which an O(m+n) matrix-vector multiplication scheme is available is O((m+n)*k). This cost is the same as that of the well-established Lanczos scheme, but the randomized scheme is significantly more robust. For a general matrix A, the cost of the randomized scheme is O(m*n*log(k)), which should be compared to the O(m*n*k) cost of existing deterministic methods.
Monday, April 20, 2009 - 13:00 , Location: Skiles 255 , Tiancheng Ouyang , Brigham Young , Organizer: Chongchun Zeng
In this talk, I will show many interesting orbits in 2D and 3D of the N-body problem. Some of them do not have symmetrical property nor with equal masses. Some of them with collision singularity. The methods of our numerical optimization lead to search the initial conditions and properties of preassigned orbits. The variational methods will be used for the prove of the existence.