Approximating CSPs with Global Cardinality Constraints Using SDP Hierarchies

ACO Student Seminar
Friday, March 30, 2012 - 13:00
1 hour (actually 50 minutes)
Skiles 005
School of Math, Georgia Tech
In a celebrated result, Raghavendra [Rag08] showed that, assuming Unique Game Conjecture, every Max-CSP problem has a sharp approximation threshold that matches the integrality gap of a natural SDP relaxation. Raghavendra and Steurer [RS09] also gave a simple and unified framework for optimally approximating all the Max-CSPs.In this work, we consider the problem of approximating CSPs with global cardinality constraints. For example, Max-Cut is a boolean CSP where the input is a graph $G = (V,E)$ and the goal is to find a cut $S \cup \bar S = V$ that maximizes the number of crossing edges, $|E(S,\bar S)|$. The Max-Bisection problem is a variant of Max-Cut with an additional global constraint that each side of the cut has exactly half the vertices, i.e., $|S| = |V|/2$. Several other natural optimization problems like Small Set Expansion, Min Bisection and approximating Graph Expansion can be formulated as CSPs with global constraints.In this talk, I will introduce a general approach towards approximating CSPs with global constraints using SDP hierarchies. To demonstrate the approach, I will present an improved algorithm for Max-Bisection problem that achieves the following:- Given an instance of Max-Bisection with value $1-\epsilon$, the algorithm finds a bisection with value at least $1-O(\sqrt{\epsilon})$ with running time $O(n^{poly(1/\eps)})$. This approximation is near-optimal (up to constant factors in $O()$) under the Unique Games Conjecture.- Using computer-assisted proof, we show that the same algorithm also achieves a 0.85-approximation for Max-Bisection, improving on the previous bound of 0.70 (note that it is UGC-hard to approximate better than 0.878 factor). As an attempt to prove matching hardness result, we show a generic conversion from SDP integrality gap to dictatorship test for any CSP with global cardinality constraints. The talk is based on joint work with Prasad Raghavendra.